There are strategic drivers within the mining industry which are making explosive-free rock breakage approaches an option that is being reconsidered for the excavation of rock masses. A comprehensive review of the performance and related aspects of explosive-free rock breaking (EFRB) technologies is necessary to assess and demonstrate their applicability in the mining industry, particularly in continuous operations and autonomous mining. Additionally, it would facilitate a clear path of research and development.  A comprehensive review of rock breakage technologies and expert projects would also provide sufficient understanding from available information and expert opinions of the advantages, limitations, and broad performance specifications of existing and promising EFRB methods for open pit and underground mining applications. The main EFRB technologies include mechanical cutting, microwave, laser, fluid, thermal and electrical applications. Finally, the application of microwave irradiation of rocks has been conducted successfully in the laboratory as a high potential concept. The approach can be expanded to full-scale field implementation as a pre-conditioning tool to facilitate the mechanical breakdown of rock in a continuous fashion as well as possible destressing of rock under high stress. A reduction in mechanical strength of rocks as a result of microwave irradiation could improve the performance of rock excavation equipment such as a tunnel boring machine. This will be increasing the rate of penetration and reducing operation time.

Keywords: Mining, Rock breakage, Fragmentation, Explosive-free, Excavation


Anahtar Kelimeler

Mining, Rock breakage, Fragmentation, Explosive-free, Excavation

Tam Metin:

PDF (English)


F. Hassani, "Review of explosive -free rock breakage (EFRB) technologies," McGill University. Montreal, Canada, pp 450 2010.

D. B. Sugden, "Oscillating disc cutter with speed controlling bearings," ed: Google Patents, 2008.

S. Karekal, "Oscillating disc cutting technique for hard rock excavation," in 47th US rock mechanics/geomechanics symposium, 2013: American Rock Mechanics Association.

S. Dehkhoda and E. Detournay, "Mechanics of actuated disc cutting," Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 465-483, 2017.

J. Rostami, L. Ozdemir, and B. Asbury, "Mini-Disc Equipped Roadheader Technology for Hard Rock Mining," in Third International Symposium on Mine Mechanization and Automation, 1995, vol. 2.

S. Willis, "Technology and knowledge transfer-good practice guidelines," Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, vol. 102, no. 5, pp. 269-273, 2002.

D. Ross-Watt, "Presidential Address: Mining engineering-a discipline for the future," Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, vol. 95, no. 6, pp. 241-268, 1995.

R. Haase, "Non-explosive mining: An untapped potential for the South African gold-mining industry," Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, vol. 91, no. 11, pp. 381-388, 1991.

N. Bilgin, T. Dincer, and H. Copur, "The performance prediction of impact hammers from Schmidt hammer rebound values in Istanbul metro tunnel drivages," Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 237-247, 2002.

W. K. Gwarek and M. Celuch-Marcysiak, "A review of microwave power applications in industry and research," in 15th International Conference on Microwaves, Radar and Wireless Communications (IEEE Cat. No. 04EX824), 2004, vol. 3: IEEE, pp. 843-848.

H. L. Hartman and J. M. Mutmansky, Introductory mining engineering. John Wiley & Sons, 2002.

F. Hassani, P. Radziszewski, J. Ouellet, M. Nokkent, and P. Nekoovaght, "Microwave Assisted Drilling And Its Influence On Rock Breakage A Review," in ISRM International Symposium-5th Asian Rock Mechanics Symposium, 2008: International Society for Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering.

B. C. Gahan, "Laser drilling: Understanding laser/rock interaction fundamentals," Gas Tips, vol. 8, pp. 4-8, 2002.

C. Barker and K. Timmerman, "Water jet drilling of long horizontal holes in coal beds," in Proc. First US Water Jet Symposium, April 7, 8, 9, 1981, Golden, Colorado, 1981.

J. T. Bartley, "Applied theoretical studies of water jet penetrations and cutting," 1996.

C. Dowding and R. Dickinson, "Water jet cutting of experimental rock discontinuities," in International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences & Geomechanics Abstracts, 1981, vol. 18, no. 3: Elsevier, pp. 235-243.

A. Chillman, M. Ramulu, and M. Hashish, "A general overview of waterjet surface treatment modeling," in American WJTA conference and expo, 2009.

L. Xiaohong, W. Jiansheng, L. Yiyu, Y. Lin, K. Huiming, and S. Jiajun, "Experimental investigation of hard rock cutting with collimated abrasive water jets," International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, vol. 37, no. 7, pp. 1143-1148, 2000.

N. R. Council, Drilling and excavation technologies for the future. National Academies Press, 1994.

F. Hassani, P. M. Nekoovaght, and N. Gharib, "The influence of microwave irradiation on rocks for microwave-assisted underground excavation," Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 1-15, 2016, doi: 10.1016/j.jrmge.2015.10.004.

E. Hoke, J. Sun, J. D. Strunk, G. R. Ganger, and C. Faloutsos, "InteMon: continuous mining of sensor data in large-scale self-infrastructures," ACM SIGOPS Operating Systems Review, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 38-44, 2006.

B. Asbury, M. Cigla, and C. Balci, "Design methodology, testing and evaluation of a continuous miner cutterhead for dust reduction in underground coal mining," in SME Annual Meeting, 2002, pp. 02-136.

W. Gray, "Surface spalling by thermal stresses in rocks," in Proceedings Rock Mechanics Symposium, Toronto, 1965, pp. 85-106.

D. Jansen, D. Hutchins, and R. Young, "Acoustic imaging of thermally fractured rock," in IEEE 1991 Ultrasonics Symposium, 1991: IEEE, pp. 695-698.

G. Scott, "Microwave pretreatment of a low grade copper ore to enhance milling performance and liberation," Stellenbosch: University of Stellenbosch, 2006.

P. Nekoovaght, N. Gharib, and F. Hassani, "Microwave assisted rock breakage for space mining," in Earth and Space 2014, 2014, pp. 414-423.

W. Wei, Z. Shao, Y. Zhang, R. Qiao, and J. Gao, "Fundamentals and applications of microwave energy in rock and concrete processing – A review," Applied Thermal Engineering, vol. 157, 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2019.113751.

G. Lu, X. Feng, Y. Li, and X. Zhang, "Influence of microwave treatment on mechanical behaviour of compact basalts under different confining pressures," Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, 2019, doi:


S. Crow, "The effect of porosity on hydraulic rock cutting," in International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences & Geomechanics Abstracts, 1974, vol. 11, no. 3: Elsevier, pp. 103-105.

S. C. Crow, "A theory of hydraulic rock cutting," in International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences & Geomechanics Abstracts, 1973, vol. 10, no. 6: Elsevier, pp. 567-584.

C. Edwards, "The Cigar Lake project- Mining, ore handling and milling," Canadian Mining and Metallurgical Bulletin, vol. 97, no. 1078, pp. 105-114, 2004.

I. Farmer and P. Attewell, "Rock penetration by high velocity water jet: A review of the general problem and an experimental study," in International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences & Geomechanics Abstracts, 1965, vol. 2, no. 2: Elsevier, pp. 135-153.


P. Hagan, "The cuttability of rock using a high pressure water jet," University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia, obtained form the Internet on Sep, vol. 7, 2010.

M. K. Babu and O. Krishnaiah, "Studies on abrasive waterjet machining of black granite through design of experiments," Experimental Techniques, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 49-54, 2003.

H. Bluhm, W. Frey, H. Giese, P. Hoppe, C. Schultheiss, and R. Strassner, "Application of pulsed HV discharges to material fragmentation and recycling," IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 625-636, 2000.

Madde Ölçümleri

Ölçüm Çağırılıyor ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM


  • Şu halde refbacks yoktur.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Selçuk-Teknik Dergisi  ISSN:1302-6178